Emotional responses to computers: Experiences in unfairness, anger, and spite
Richard E. Ferdig, University of Florida, United States ; Punya Mishra, Michigan State University, United States
Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia Volume ISSN 1055-8896 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Waynesville, NC USA
Although some educational technology theorists and researchers view technology as merely a set of tools, recent theoretical and empirical work has begun to examine technology as a social actor in relationships with humans. Drawing on recent research on people’s psychological responses to interactive media, this study looked at people’s emotional responses to computers when they felt that computer had cheated them. Specifically we looked at whether people would act spitefully towards computers (by attempting to punish it) when treated unfairly in an ultimatum bargaining game. Our findings suggest humans do treat machines as social actors, enter into psychological contracts with them and act spitefully after feeling betrayed. We end with a discussion on implications for the design of educational software.
Ferdig, R.E. & Mishra, P. (1996). Emotional responses to computers: Experiences in unfairness, anger, and spite. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 143-161. Charlottesville, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).