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Incentives for teacher relocation: Evidence from the Gambian hardship allowance

, , Oregon State University, United States

Economics of Education Review Volume 41, Number 1, ISSN 0272-7757 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


We evaluate the impact of the Gambian hardship allowance, which provides a salary premium of 30–40% to primary school teachers in remote locations, on the distribution and characteristics of teachers across schools. A geographic discontinuity in the policy's implementation and the presence of common pre-treatment trends between hardship and non-hardship schools provide sources of identifying variation. We find that the hardship allowance increased the share of qualified (certified) teachers by 10 percentage points. The policy also reduced the pupil–qualified teacher ratio by 27, or 61% of the mean, in recipient schools close to the distance threshold. Further analysis suggests that these gains were not merely the result of teachers switching from non-hardship to hardship schools. With similar policies in place in more than two dozen other developing countries, our study provides an important piece of evidence on their effectiveness.


Pugatch, T. & Schroeder, E. (2014). Incentives for teacher relocation: Evidence from the Gambian hardship allowance. Economics of Education Review, 41(1), 120-136. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved January 22, 2020 from .

This record was imported from Economics of Education Review on March 1, 2019. Economics of Education Review is a publication of Elsevier.

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