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L2 writing: subprocesses, a model of formulating and empirical findings

Learning and Instruction Volume 10, Number 1 ISSN 0959-4752 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


Recent writing research has been heavily influenced by Hayes and Flower's model of the L1 writing process with its emphasis on planning and a certain disregard of the formulating component (“translating”). Its structure has been largely maintained in Börner's model of L2 writing, despite some necessary additions.On the basis of a variety of different learner data (L1 German, L2 English), we propose an alternative model of the L2 writing process in which the central formulating component is substantially elaborated through the introduction of several functionally discrete subprocesses. The data stress the importance of tentative formulations in the writing process, and call for a partial revision of the oft-cited assumption that writing is re-writing. They also suggest only a minor influence of the L1 on L2 formulating.


Zimmermann, R. L2 writing: subprocesses, a model of formulating and empirical findings. Learning and Instruction, 10(1), 73-99. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved January 20, 2020 from .

This record was imported from Learning and Instruction on January 29, 2019. Learning and Instruction is a publication of Elsevier.

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