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Innocent Until Proven Guilty


Mathematics Teacher Volume 109, Number 9, ISSN 0025-5769


In the criminal justice system, defendants accused of a crime are presumed innocent until proven guilty. Statistical inference in any context is built on an analogous principle: The null hypothesis--often a hypothesis of "no difference" or "no effect"--is presumed true unless there is sufficient evidence against it. In this article the authors present an activity where students use simulations--with physical spinners and a computer applet--to introduce and explore the concept of statistical power.


Case, C. & Whitaker, D. (2016). Innocent Until Proven Guilty. Mathematics Teacher, 109(9), 686-692. Retrieved May 28, 2022 from .

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