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The Flipped Classroom in a Terminal College Mathematics Course for Liberal Arts Students

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AERA Open Volume 4, Number 1,


The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of flipping the classroom on final exam scores in a terminal general education college mathematics course for a diverse student population. We employed a quasiexperimental design. Seven instructors collectively taught 13 sections of each pedagogy (flipped/traditional). Six hundred thirty-two students participated. Common final exams were graded concurrently. Mixed-model analyses were performed. Students in flipped sections scored 5.1 percentage points higher on average than those in traditional sections (p = 0.02) when controlling for math SAT and financial aid status, an improvement of 7.8 points among Black students (p < 0.01) and 1.0 points among Whites (p = 0.67). The estimated average difference between White and Black students, conditional on covariates, was 5.2 percentage points in traditional sections (p < 0.01) and -1.6 in flipped sections (p = 0.39). The 6.8-point difference in achievement gap between pedagogies was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Flipping the classroom was associated with improved student performance, particularly among Black students.


Carter, C.L., Carter, R.L. & Foss, A.H. (2018). The Flipped Classroom in a Terminal College Mathematics Course for Liberal Arts Students. AERA Open, 4(1),. Retrieved October 27, 2021 from .

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