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Online Student Perceptions of Engagement, Transactional Distance, and Outcomes


Distance Education Volume 39, Number 3, ISSN 0158-7919


This study explores student perceptions of engagement, transactional distance, and outcomes in online courses. Researchers also investigated linkages between these elements. Data were collected from students enrolled in online courses at three private universities located at different geographical regions in the United States. Six hundred sixty-seven students completed the Revised Scale of Transactional Distance developed by Paul, Swart, Zhang, and MacLeod and a modified version of Dixson's Online Student Engagement scale during spring 2016 semester. Results indicate students experienced a relatively high level of engagement and a moderate level of transactional distance. Respondents perceived outcomes such as satisfaction, progression, and learning very positively. There were significant differences in responses based on gender and college standing. Student engagement, transactional distance, and outcomes were moderately correlated, and researchers confirmed transactional distance is a valid predictor of student engagement.


Bolliger, D.U. & Halupa, C. (2018). Online Student Perceptions of Engagement, Transactional Distance, and Outcomes. Distance Education, 39(3), 299-316. Retrieved March 8, 2021 from .

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