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Examining Domains of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Using Factor Analysis

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Journal of Research on Technology in Education Volume 45, Number 4, ISSN 1539-1523


This study examined the construct validity of the Survey of Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Teaching and Technology through an exploratory factor analysis using responses from 365 preservice teachers enrolled in an educational technology course in the United States. The participants were completing methods courses and field experience concurrent to the educational technology course, allowing them to contextualize the content they learned during the semester. The survey, grounded in the framework of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), is designed to measure seven domains associated with technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge. Although the influence of the TPACK framework on teacher education programs continues to grow, research indicates the need for clearer distinctions between the domains. Results from this study revealed that participants did not always make conceptual distinctions between the TPACK domains. Specifically, factors were congruent across only technological knowledge (TK) and content knowledge (CK) and not congruent across pedagogical knowledge (PK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), technological content knowledge (TCK), and TPACK. Additionally, PK and PCK loaded together, indicating the participants did not distinguish PK from PCK. Overall, this study confirms the need to provide more clarity about the TPACK framework and to revisit survey instruments built directly around the framework. (Contains 6 tables and 1 figure.)


Shinas, V.H., Yilmaz-Ozden, S., Mouza, C., Karchmer-Klein, R. & Glutting, J.J. (2013). Examining Domains of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Using Factor Analysis. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 45(4), 339-360. Retrieved February 24, 2020 from .

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