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A Half-Flipped Classroom or an Alternative Approach?: Primary Sources and Blended Learning

Educational Research Quarterly Volume 38, Number 2, ISSN 0196-5042


This paper examines an alternate approach to the "flipped" classroom paradigm for an upper level history class using a blended on-line and in-class format. The concept of the flipped classroom has received increasing emphasis based on its potential to create a student-centered learning environment that incorporates practical instruction along with collaborative techniques. The use of flipping has largely been tied to the incorporation of video technology either in the form of a student practicum or an instructor lecture via on-line delivery combined with a classroom meeting involving collaboration and/or application exercises in the face-to-face session. With respect to flipping the history classroom, this paper offers the results from an upper division history course in which historical primary sources were introduced in the on-line portion of a hybrid class. The use of the primary sources also included a bi-modal collaborative mechanism, since students collaborated by sharing their thoughts prior to class and the start of the class incorporated a student-centered collaborative exercise based on the primary sources. This collaborative discussion on the primary sources served as the gateway into the broader topic discussion. This paper describes this process and uses student feedback to evaluate the effectiveness of this methodological approach.


Westermann, E.B. (2014). A Half-Flipped Classroom or an Alternative Approach?: Primary Sources and Blended Learning. Educational Research Quarterly, 38(2), 43-57. Retrieved January 20, 2020 from .

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