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Reflection as an Indicator of Cognitive Presence

E-Learning and Digital Media Volume 11, Number 1, ISSN 2042-7530


In the Community of Inquiry (CoI) model, cognitive presence indicators can be used to evaluate the quality of inquiry in a discussion forum. Engagement in critical thinking and deep knowledge can occur through reflective processes. When learners move through the four phases of cognitive presence (triggering, exploration, integration, resolution), the processes of discussion and reflection are important in developing deep understanding. In this article, data from the online discussion archives within a blended teacher-education course are analysed using the cognitive presence indicators from the CoI with the additional indicator of reflection. This study indicates that when instructors structure online discussions appropriately, learners are able to share and document their thinking and reflect on their contributions and the perspectives of others while developing new or deeper knowledge. To facilitate the coding of reflective activities and online posts the researcher proposes modifying the resolution phase of the original cognitive presence coding protocol to include an additional reflection indicator.


Redmond, P. (2014). Reflection as an Indicator of Cognitive Presence. E-Learning and Digital Media, 11(1), 46-58. Retrieved January 29, 2020 from .

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