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Using a multimedia training tool to enhance *efficacy and hardiness for elite-level hockey goaltenders

, University of Calgary , Canada

University of Calgary . Awarded


Providing an athlete with the mental skills necessary to build, maintain or regain confidence can aid the athlete in achieving peak, or optimal performance. Many of the procedures and practices in mental training involve technology ranging from digital video and audiotapes, to simulations and virtual reality. The combination of these media based on a new instructional design (ID) model and tailored to the needs of the individual athlete, represents a new and innovative approach to athlete training and mental preparation for performance.

The purpose of this research was to create a multimedia training tool for elite level athletes using the Sport Technology Training Tool (ST3) Model for Performance Enhancement. This model for development was combined with two particular mental training skills, efficacy and hardiness, in order to test the hypothesis that combining technology with applied sport psychology would result in optimal mental preparation and enhanced athletic performance.

Participants were analyzed according to both single-subject multiple baseline design, as well as ANOVA and MANOVA methods. Results from testing with 15 elite hockey goaltenders indicated that while the participants liked the tools and found that using them made mental training easier, many of the goaltenders found it difficult to make the time to use the tools properly. In fact, starting goaltenders began using the tool less, compared to backup goaltenders. Nevertheless, the longer the goaltenders were in the study, the more "engaged" with the tools they became. This was despite the fact with that few of the goaltenders' teams had mental training programs. It was also found that female goaltenders had stronger, more positive attitudes towards technology and mental training, as well as feelings of Challenge (Hardiness) than male goaltenders. These findings are discussed within the context of several other factors, particularly with regard to several newly designed variable measures: "Team Quality", and "Team Performance".


Chisamore, C. Using a multimedia training tool to enhance *efficacy and hardiness for elite-level hockey goaltenders. Ph.D. thesis, University of Calgary. Retrieved July 25, 2021 from .

This record was imported from ProQuest on October 23, 2013. [Original Record]

Citation reproduced with permission of ProQuest LLC.

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