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The effect of varied concept maps and self-directed learning ability on students' hypermedia learning

, The Pennsylvania State University, United States

The Pennsylvania State University . Awarded


The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional effectiveness of varied concept maps in measuring different learning objectives for students with different levels of self-directed learning abilities in a hypertext environment.

This study adopted a randomized-based experimental design. A two (high and low levels of self-directed learning ability) by four (instructional treatments with or without concept maps) factorial research model was built. The independent variables were concept map and self-directed learning; the dependent variables were the three criterion tests (identification, terminology, and comprehension test) measuring participants’ hypermedia learning performances. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), a primary statistical technique, was used in this experimental study.

Undergraduate students (n=126) voluntarily participated in this study. Based on the median score of the SDLRS measurement, student participants were divided into two levels (high or low) of self-directed learning. Through stratified sampling, participants in each group were randomly assigned into four instructional treatments: Treatment 1 (Control 1: text-only), Treatment 2 (Control 2: static images), Treatment 3 (traditional concept maps), and Treatment 4 (visualized-based concept maps).

Through data analysis, this study yielded eight findings: (1) Students’ self-directed learning abilities would not relate to their learning performances. No relationship existed between self-directed learning and learning performance. (2) Different concept maps would not influence students’ self-directed learning abilities since no significant interaction existed between instructional strategy (concept maps) and self-directed learning. (3) Visualized-based concept maps were significantly better than traditional concept maps for identification and terminology tests. (4) Traditional concept maps would not significantly support student learning. (5) Static images (visuals) significantly improved students’ learning performances. (6) Participants’ background information, as extraneous variables, would not influence the results of this study. (7) Visual instruction was students’ preference. Both visualized-based concept maps and static visual effectively supported student learning. (8) Based on Guglielmino’s standard, students’ self-directed learning abilities tend to be low level in this study.


Chou, P.N. The effect of varied concept maps and self-directed learning ability on students' hypermedia learning. Ph.D. thesis, The Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved August 3, 2021 from .

This record was imported from ProQuest on October 22, 2013. [Original Record]

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