You are here:

Teacher Leadership Factors Predicting Technology Integration

, Bowling Green State University, United States ; , Rossford Village Schools, United States

Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States ISBN 978-1-939797-02-5 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Chesapeake, VA


This correlational study examined which leadership practices best predict technology integration. A sample of 361 K-12 teachers from six suburban school districts in Northwest Ohio completed the 21st Century Technology Integration and Teacher Leadership (21-TITL) instrument online, which utilized Kouzes and Posner’s Leadership Practices model (2003). Multiple regression results generated a one factor model—Challenge the Process—as best predicting Overall Technology Integration.


Reinhart, R.V. & Rathsack, C. (2013). Teacher Leadership Factors Predicting Technology Integration. In R. McBride & M. Searson (Eds.), Proceedings of SITE 2013--Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 3617-3625). New Orleans, Louisiana, United States: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved March 23, 2019 from .

View References & Citations Map


  1. Bardin, J. (2008). Tech camp unleashes creativity and collaboration. Learning& Leading with Technology, 35(8), 18-20, 22.
  2. Becker, H.J. (2000). How exemplary computer-using teachers differ from other teachers: Implications for realizing the potential of computers in schools. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education [Online serial], 1(2), 274-293. [Originally published in Journal of Research on Computing in Education, (1994), 26(3), 291-321.]
  3. Beglau, M., Craig-Hare, J., Foltos, L., Gann, K., James, J., Jobe, H., Knight, J., & Smith, B. (2011). Technology, coaching, and community: Power partners for improved professional development in primary and secondary education. An ISTE White Paper, Special Conference Release. Retrieved from Bloom, B. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives. White Plains, NY: Longman.
  4. Bonk, C.J. (2009). The world is open: How web technology is revolutionizing education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  5. Brooks-Young, S. (2010). Teaching with the tools kids really use: Learning with Web and mobile technologies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  6. Chen, M. (2010). Education nation: Six leading edges of innovation in our schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  7. Covey, S.R. (1989). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Restoring the character ethic. New York: Simon& Schuster.
  8. Crowther, F., Ferguson, M., & Hann, L. (2009). Developing teacher leaders: How teacher leadership enhances school success (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  9. Fullan, M.G. (1993). Why teachers must become change agents. Educational Leadership, 50(6), 12-17.
  10. Fullan, M. (1994). Teacher leadership: A failure to conceptualize. In D.R. Walling (Ed.), Teachers as leaders: Perspectives on the professional development of teachers (pp. 241-253). Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa
  11. Hastings, T.A. (2009). Factors that predict quality classroom technology use (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from
  12. ISTE (2011). NETS-C: National Educational Technology Standards for Coaches. ISTE: Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education. Retrieved from Katzenmeyer, M., & Moller, G. (2001). Awakening the sleeping giant: Helping teachers develop as leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
  13. Kimmelman, P. (2010). The school leadership triangle: From compliance to innovation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  14. Kouzes, J.M., & Posner, B.Z. (2002). The leadership practices inventory: The theory and evidence behind the five practices of exemplary leaders. Retrieved from Kouzes, J.M., & Posner, B.Z. (2003). The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI): Self instrument (3rd ed.).
  15. Kouzes, J.M., & Posner, B.Z. (2008). The student leadership challenge. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  16. Lambert, L. (2006, May 9). Half of teachers quit in 5 years. Retrieved from
  17. Mishra, P., & Koehler, M.J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017–1054.
  18. Moersch, C. (1995). Levels of technology implementation (LoTi): A framework for measuring classroom technology use. Learning and Leading with Technology, 23(3), 40-41.
  19. Moersch, C. (2010). LoTi turns up the H.E.A.T.! Learning and Leading with Technology, 37(5), 20-23.
  20. National Research Council. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. J.D. Bransford, A.L. Brown, & R.R. Cocking, (Eds.). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
  21. Nulty, D.D. (2008). The adequacy of response rates to online and paper surveys: What can be done? Assessment& Evaluation in Higher Education (33)3, 301-14.
  22. Rathsack, C. (2012). A profile of early 21st century teachers of Northwest Ohio: The relationship between teachers’ techno9logy integration and leadership practices (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from Riel, M., & Becker, H. (2000). The beliefs, practices, and computer use of teacher leaders. Unpublished manuscript. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association (AERA), April 26, 2000. Retrieved from Findings/aera
  23. Riel, M., & Becker, H.J. (2008). Characteristics of teacher leaders for information and communication technology. In J. Voogt& G. Knezek (Eds.), International handbook of information technology in primary and secondary education (pp. 397-417). New York: Springer.
  24. Richardson, W. (2006). Blogs, wikis, podcasts, and other powerful web tools for classrooms. San Francisco, CA: Corwin Press.
  25. Sandholtz, J.H., Ringstaff, C., & Dwyer, D.C. (1997). Teaching with technology: Creating student-centered classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press.
  26. Scott, P., & Mouza, C. (2007). The impact of professional development on teacher learning, practice and leadership skills: A study on the integration of technology in the teaching of writing. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 37(3), 229-266.
  27. Selber, S.A. (2004). Multiliteracies for a digital age. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
  28. Solomon, G., & Schrum, L. (2010). Web 2.0: How-to for educators. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.
  29. Staples, A., Pugach, M.C., & Himes, D. (2005). Rethinking the technology integration challenge: Cases from three urban elementary schools. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 37(3), 285-311.
  30. Stoltzfus, J. (2009). Criterion-related validation of the core LoTi levels: An exploratory analysis. Retrieved from
  31. Tagg, J. (2003). The learning paradigm college. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, (2010). Transforming American education: Learning powered by technology. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from Vannatta, R.A., & Fordham, N. (2004). Teacher dispositions as predictors of classroom technology use. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 36(3), 253-271.
  32. Vannatta, R., & Banister, S. (2009). Validating a measure of teacher technology integration. In C. Maddux (Ed.), Research Highlights in Technology and Teacher Education 2009. Society for Information Technology in Teacher Education. Chesapeake, Virginia: SITE.
  33. Walling, D.R. (1994). Teachers as leaders: Perspectives on the professional development of teachers. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.
  34. Zhao, Y. (2009). Catching up or leading the way: American education in the age of globalization. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact