You are here:

When Knowing Leads to NOT Doing: Reasoning as evidence of TPCK

, Stanford University, United States

Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, in Austin, Texas, USA ISBN 978-1-880094-92-1 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Chesapeake, VA


Teachers need to know how to use new technologies in ways that support powerful learning experiences for students. This knowledge, known as Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK), is challenging to measure. This paper explores the use of scenarios to illuminate the ways in which teachers reason about technology use. This example suggests that scenario-based measures hold promise for uncovering teachers’ application of professional judgment to questions of classroom technology use, even in situations with low technology access. The results illuminate the importance of considering whether high TPCK may in some cases result in a decision not to use technology with students.


Forssell, K. (2012). When Knowing Leads to NOT Doing: Reasoning as evidence of TPCK. In P. Resta (Ed.), Proceedings of SITE 2012--Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 2793-2798). Austin, Texas, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved March 26, 2019 from .

View References & Citations Map


  1. Angeli, C., & Valanides, N. (2009). Epistemological and methodological issues for the conceptualization, development, and assessment of ICT-TPCK: Advances in technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). Computers& Education, 52(1), 154–168.
  2. Barron, B. (2004). Learning ecologies for technological fluency: Gender and experience differences. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 31, 1-36.
  3. Becker, H.J. (2000). Findings from the teaching, learning, and computing survey: Is Larry Cuban right? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8 (51). Retrieved on December 15, 2007 from
  4. Cuban, L. (2003). Oversold and underused: Computers in the classroom. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  5. Forssell, K.S. (2011). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Relationships To Learning Ecologies And Social Learning Networks. Doctoral Dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
  6. Gray, L., Thomas, N., & Lewis, L. (2010). Teachers’ Use of Educational Technology in U.S. Public Schools: 2009 (NCES 2010-040). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.
  7. Harris, J., Grandgenett, N., & Hofer, M. (2010). Testing a TPCK-based technology integration assessment rubric. In C.D. Maddux, D. Gibson, & B. Dodge (Eds.), Research highlights in technology and teacher education 2010 (pp. 323-331). Chesapeake, VA: Society for Information Technology&
  8. Mishra, P. & Koehler, M.J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.
  9. Mishra, P. & Koehler, M.J. (2007). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK): Confronting the Wicked Problems of Teaching with Technology. Invited address at the annual meeting of Society Information Technology and Teacher Education. Retrieved October 2nd, 2007, from Mishra_invited.doc
  10. Shulman, L.S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15, 4–14.

These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact