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Active and passive technology integration in context-aware learning spaces

, , University of Eastern Finland, Finland ; , University of Warwick, United Kingdom ; , University of Eastern Finland, Finland

E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education, in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA ISBN 978-1-880094-90-7 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), San Diego, CA


Context-aware learning spaces (CALSs) utilise resources of the surrounding context in the learning process. UFractions is a CALS combining a storytelling game and fraction rods for mathematics education, and it was developed for the South African context and later taken to Finland. We divide technology integration into active and passive integration according to the role of technology in the process. In passive integration the technology is integrated into the CALS so that it does not disturb the learner and the context. In active integration the technology integrates resources into the CALS and makes the system adaptive to contextual changes. We analysed, by a mixed method approach, the need for active and passive integration in UFractions in Finland and South Africa. We identified sixteen disturbance factors which had negative effects on the users of UFractions. The results indicate that by improving active and passive integration in UFractions, disturbance factors can be diminished.


Laine, T., Sutinen, E., Joy, M. & Nygren, E. (2011). Active and passive technology integration in context-aware learning spaces. In C. Ho & M. Lin (Eds.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2011--World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (pp. 719-728). Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved March 24, 2019 from .


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