You are here:

Implementing an Educational Technology Course in Namibia’s Basic Education Teaching Diploma Program

, William Paterson University, United States

Journal of Technology and Teacher Education Volume 20, Number 4, ISSN 1059-7069 Publisher: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education, Waynesville, NC USA


In 2006, the author worked on a pre-service education course in instructional media and revised it to include ICTs and technology integration, as part of a national program to infuse ICTs throughout Namibia’s educational system. The course was to be implemented in 2008 at all four Colleges of Education in Namibia responsible for the Basic Education Teaching Diploma, along with a parallel rollout of supporting technology infrastructure, support and teacher-educator training. In 2010, the author re-visited the Colleges of Education to assess the adoption of the course. Using the ISTE Essential Conditions for effective technology integration as a framework, this paper reports on the progress made towards meeting each condition as well as the relative impact the conditions made on the course implementation.


Wilder, H. (2012). Implementing an Educational Technology Course in Namibia’s Basic Education Teaching Diploma Program. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 20(4), 467-492. Waynesville, NC USA: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education. Retrieved March 24, 2019 from .

View References & Citations Map


  1. An, H., Wilder, H., & Lim, K. (2011). Preparing elementary preservice teachers from a non-traditional student population to teach with technology. Computers in the Schools, 28(2), 170-193.
  2. Anonymous iCTs in education Steering Committee Member. (2010). Personal communication.
  3. Ballantyne, P. (2004). Evaluation of Swedish support to SchoolNet Namibia. [report to Swedish international development Cooperation agency]. Retrieved from
  4. Banister, S. & Fischer, J. (2010). Overcoming the digital divide: The Story of an Urban Middle School. Mid-Western Educational Researcher, 23(2), 2-9. Retrieved from
  5. Boer, P. (2012). The implementation of a Namibian education technology policy as seen through the eyes of the teachers. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. New york: Teachers College, Columbia University
  6. Borthwick, A., Hansen, R., Gray, L. & Ziemann, I. (2008). Exploring essential Conditions: a Commentary on Bull et al. (2008). Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 8(3), 195-201. AaCe. Retrieved from
  7. Brannigan, N. (2008). Tech/Na! Evaluation of GeSCI and Namibia MoE agreement. Retrieved from
  8. Chitiyo, R. & Harmon, S. (2009). An analysis of the integration of instructional technology in pre-service teacher education in Zimbabwe. Educational Technology Research and Development, 57(6). 807-830.
  9. Davis, N. & Thompson, A. (2005). The evaluation of technology-related professional development, Part 2. In C. Crawford et al. (eds.), Proceedings of Society
  10. Friesen, S. & Lock, J. (2010). High Performing districts in the application of 21st Century learning Technologies: review of the research. [report prepared for the College of alberta School Superintendents]. Retrieved from Heineck, W. & Adamy, P. (2010). Evaluating Technology in Teacher Education: Lessons from the Preparing Tomorrow’s Teachers for Technology (PT3) Program. Charlotte, NC: information age Publishing.
  11. Iipinge, S.M. (2010). The integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the preparation of teachers at colleges of education in Namibia. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Windhoek, Namibia: University of Namibia.
  12. Ilukena, A. (2007). Acceptance letter for receipt of the 6th SiTe award for Outstanding Service to digital equity. Retrieved from
  13. International Society for Technology in education (2007). Essential conditions: Necessary conditions to effectively leverage technology for learnfrom Retrieved ForStudents/2007Standards/Conditions/NeTS_for_Students_essential_Conditions.htm
  14. Ministry of education. (2006a). ICTs in education implementation plan guide. Retrieved from Ministry of education. (2006b). ICTs in Education standards & Indicators for Namibian teachers. Available at
  15. Ministry of education (2007), Education and training sector improvement programme (ETSIP). Retrieved from
  16. Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: a new framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.
  17. Mukama, E. (2009). The interplay between learning and the use of iCT in rwandan student teachers’ everyday practice. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25(6), 539-548.
  18. Olakulehin, F. K. (2007). Information and communication technologies in teacher training and professional development in Nigeria. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 8(1). 133-142.
  19. Pomuti, H. (2010). Personal communication.
  20. Thomas, L. & Knezek, D. (2008). Information, communications, and educational technology standards for students, teachers, and school leaders. In J. Voogt, G. Knezek (eds.) International handbook of information technology in primary and secondary education, pp. 333–348. New york: Springer Science + Business Media, llC
  21. USaid/aed (2005). The initiative for Namibian education technology (iNET): Final administrative and progress report. [report for USaid]. Washington dC: academy for educational development. Retrieved from
  22. Vannatta, R. A. & O’Bannon, B. (2002). Beginning to put the pieces together: a technology infusion model for teacher education. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 18(4), 112-113.
  23. World Bank (2007). International bank for reconstruction and development program document for a proposed first development policy loan in the amount of US$5 million to the Republic of Namibia for a first education and training sector improvement program. (report No. 38571). Re
  24. Zeichner, K. & Dahlstrom, L. (1999). Democratic teacher education reform in Africa: The case of Namibia. Boulder,CO: Westview

These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact