The Status of Middle and High School Instruction: Examining Professional Development, Social Desirability, and Teacher Readiness for Blended Pedagogy
in the Southeastern United States
Rebecca A. Parks, Mansfield University, United States ; Wendy Oliver, Thrivist, United States ; Elaine Carson, Xperience Education, United States
Journal of Online Learning Research Volume 2, Number 2, ISSN 2374-1473 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Waynesville, NC USA
Using quantitative methods, the current study addresses the phenomenon of blended learning and the impact of professional development (PD) in blended learning on teacher practice. Two separate but complementary investigations, Oliver’s (2013) focus group data for examining Oliver's Framework for Blended Instruction and Parks' (2015) national open-ended survey results, unveiled a common thread, which provided motivation for this study. A purposeful sample of 366 secondary public school teachers located in the Southeastern United States completed the Blended Practice Profile, a self-assessment diagnostic instrument, to measure their practices in blended teaching. Results indicate contradictory data, demonstrating that the majority of participating teachers who self-identify as blended educators actually fell within the novice and emerging range for competency in blended instruction, concluding that blended learning is socially desirable and not fully understood in its entirety. The data illuminate a need for personalized professional development for teachers of blended instruction to meet their specific needs and gaps in understanding of the competencies necessary for effective blended pedagogy. The authors suggest that both formal and informal professional development should model blended instructional practices and techniques that focus on enhancing learning and measure for efficacy to successfully impact and transform blended instruction and behaviors in the classroom with fidelity.
Parks, R.A., Oliver, W. & Carson, E. (2016). The Status of Middle and High School Instruction: Examining Professional Development, Social Desirability, and Teacher Readiness for Blended Pedagogy in the Southeastern United States. Journal of Online Learning Research, 2(2), 79-101. Waynesville, NC USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved March 24, 2019 from https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/173236/.
© 2016 Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE)
- Archambault, L., & Kennedy, K. (2014). Teacher preparation for K-12 blended and online learning. In R.E. Ferdig, K. Kennedy (Eds.), Handbook of research on K-12 online and blended learning, (pp. 225-244). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University
- Bonk, C.J., & Graham, C.R. (2006). Handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives, local designs. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer, John Wiley& Sons.
- Bradshaw, L.K. (2002). Technology for teaching and learning: Strategies for staff development and follow-up support. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 10(1), 131-150. Bybee, R.W., & Loucks-Horsley,. (2000). Advancing technology education: The role of professional development. The Technology Teacher, 60(2), 31-34.
- Carr, S. (2000). As distance education comes of age, the challenge is keeping the students. Chronicle of Higher Education, 46 (23), A39-A41. Http://chronicle.com/free/v46/i23/23a00101.htm
- Cavanaugh, C., Barbour, M., & Clark, T. (2009). Research and practice in K-12 online learning: A review of open access literature. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 10(1). Http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/607/1182.
- Davis, N., & Rose, R. (2007). Professional development for virtual schooling and online learning. North American Council for Online Learning. Http://www.inacol.org/ wp-content/uploads/2012/11/NACOL_PDforVSand OlnLrng.pdf
- Diaz, D.P. (2002). Online drop rates revisited. The Technology Source. Http://technologysource.org/article/online_drop_rates_revisited/
- Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J.O. (2009). The systematic design of instruction. (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill.
- Dzluban, C., Hartman, J., & Moskal, P. (2004). Blended learning. EDUCAUSE Research Bulletin, 2004(7), 2-12.
- Field, A., Miles, J., & Field, Z. (2012). Discovering statistics using R. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.
- Fluckinger, C.D. (2014). Big five measurement via Q-sort: An alternative method for constraining socially desirable responding. SAGE Open 4(3), 1-8.
- Furey, D., & Murphey, E. (2005). K-12 virtual schools and schooling. The Morning Watch: Educational and Social Analysis, 32(3). Http://www.mun.ca/educ/faculty/mwatch/win05/MurphyFurey.htm
- Glazer, E.M., & Hannafin, M.J. (2006). The collaborative apprenticeship model: Situated professional development within school settings. Teaching and Teacher Education: An Internal Journal of Research and Studies, 22(2), 179-193.
- Goddard, Y.L., Goddard, R.D., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (2007). Theoretical and empirical investigation of teacher collaboration for school improvement and student achievement in public elementary schools. Teachers College Record, 109(4), 877-896.
- Guskey, T.R., & Yoon, K.S. (2009). What works in professional development?: Phi Delta Kappan, 90(7), 495-500.
- Harris, J., Mishra, P. & Koehler, M. (2009). Teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and learning activity types: Curriculum-based technology integration reframed. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(4), 393-416.
- Hassel, B., & Terrell, G. (2004). Managing virtual schools: The Canadian experience. In C. Cavanaugh (Ed.), Development and management of virtual schools: Issues and trends (pp. 50-67). Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing, Idea Group Inc.
- Hixon, E., & Buckenmeyer, J. (2009). Revisiting technology integration in schools: Implications for professional development. Computers in the Schools, 26(2), 130-146.
- Holden, J. & Westfall, P. (2010). An instructional media selection guide for distance learning: Implications for blended learning. (2nd ed.), United States Distance Learning Association, [online]. Https://www.usdla.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/ AIMSGDL_2nd_Ed_styled_010311.pdf
- Horn, M.B. & Staker, H. (2011). The rise of K-12 blended learning. Innosight Institute. Http://www.christenseninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Therise-of-K-12-blended-learning.pdf
- Horn M.B., & Staker, H. (2015). Blended: Using disruptive innovation to improve schools. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
- Ingersoll, R., & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 81 (2). 201-233.
- International Society for Technology in Education. (2016). ISTE standards teachers. Http://www.iste.org/standards/ISTE-standards/standards-for-teachers Kellerer, P., Kellerer, E., Werth, E., Werth, L., Montgomery, D., Clyde, R., …Kennedy, K. (2014). Transforming K-12 rural education through blended learning: Teacher perspectives. INACOL. Http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED561327.pdf
- Kurshman, B. (2015). Shifting the professional development paradigm for K-12 online learning. Texans for Education Reform: Forbes. Http://texansforeducationreform.com/latest-news/shifting-professional-development-paradigm-k-12-online-learning.
- Lett, J. (1990). Emics and etics: Notes on the epistemology of anthropology. In Headland, T.N., Pike, K.L., & Harris (Eds.). Emics and etics: The insider/outsider debate. Frontiers of anthropology, 7. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
- Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jones, K. (2010). Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. United States Department of Education Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development. Washington, D.C. Http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/ tech/evidence-based-practices/finalreport.pdf.
- Mishra, P., & Koehler, M.J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.
- Morris, M.W., Leung, K., Ames, D., & Lickel, B. (1999). Views from inside and outside: Integrating emic and etic insights about culture and justice judgment. Academy of Management Review 24(4). 781-796.
- Oliver, W. (2014). Oliver’s framework for blended and online instruction. United States Library of Congress. Http://blendedpractice.com/framework Oliver, K.M., & Stallings, D.T. (2014). Preparing teachers for emerging blended learning environments. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 22(1), 57-81.
- Powell, A., Rabbitt, B., & Kennedy, K. (2014). INACOL blended learning teacher competency framework. Vienna, VA: iNACOL. Http://www.inacol.org/wp-content/ uploads/2015/02/iNACOL-Blended-Learning-Teacher-Competency-Framework.pdf. Powell, A., Watson, J., Staley, P., Patrick, S., Horn, M., Fetzer, L., Hibbard, L., Ogelsby, J., & Verma, S. (2015). Blended learning: The evolution of online and faceto-face education from 2008-2015. INACOL. Http://www.inacol.org/wp-content/
- Ronfeldt, M., Farmer, S.O., McQueen, K., & Grissom, J.A. (2015). Teacher collaboration in instructional teams and student achievement. American Educational Research Journal (52)3, 475-514.
- Russell, G. (2004). The advantages and disadvantages of virtual schools. ICT in Education, 7(1), 6-8.
- Schlager, M.S. & Fusco, J. (2003). Teacher professional development, technology, and communities of practice: Are we putting the cart before the horse? The Information Society, 19(3), 203-220.
- Singh, H. (2003). Building effective blended learning programs. Educational Technology, 43(6), 51-54.
- Southern Regional Education Board. (2009). Guidelines for professional development of online teachers. Http://publications.sreb.org/2009/09T01_Guide_profdev_online_ teach.pdf
- Staker, H. (2011). The rise of K-12 blended learning: Profiles of emerging models. Innosight Institute. Http://www.christenseninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/ The-rise-of-K-12-blended-learning.emerging-models.pdf
- Staker, H., & Horn, M. (2012). Classifying K-12 blended learning. Innosight Institute. Http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED535180.pdf Watson, J., Pape, L., Murin, A., Gemin, B., & Vashaw, L. (2014). Keeping pace with K-12 digital learning: An annual review of policy and practice (11th ed.). Evergreen, CO: Evergreen Education Group.
- Webster-Wright, A. (2009). Reframing professional development through understanding authentic professional learning [Abstract]. Review of Educational Research, 79(2). 702-739.
- Yoon, K.S., Duncan, T., Lee, S.W., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K.L. (2007). Reviewing the evidence on how teacher professional development affects student achievement. Issues& Answers Report, REL 2007-033. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
- Zandberg, I., & Lewis, L. (2008). Technology-based distance education courses for public elementary and secondary school students: 2002-03 and 2004-05. (NCES 200808). Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
Emily Pulham, Charles Graham & Cecil Short, Brigham Young University, United States
Journal of Online Learning Research Vol. 4, No. 1 (February 2018) pp. 33–52
Exploring the Rules of the Game: Games in the Classroom, Game-Based Learning, Gamification, and Simulations
Jana Willis, University of Houston-Clear Lake, United States; Spencer Greenhalgh, Michigan State University, United States; Larysa Nadolny, Iowa State University, United States; Sa Liu, University of Texas, United States; Tugce Aldemir, Penn State World Campus, United States; Sandra Rogers, University of South Alabama, United States; Monica Trevathan, Tietronix Software, United States; Susan Hopper, Pedagogical Balance of Effective Learning, United States; Wendy Oliver, Thrivist, United States
Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2017 (Mar 05, 2017) pp. 475–480
These links are based on references which have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake, please contact email@example.com.