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Evolution of the Bangalore ICT Cluster: The "Crystal Growth" Model

Industry and Higher Education Volume 20, Number 4, ISSN 0950-4222


In about twenty years, starting in 1984, Bangalore has become the fourth best "Global Hub of Technological Innovation", according to Business Week. This article reviews the major milestones in Bangalore's development and the interactive roles of government, universities and private entrepreneurs. The author offers a new model: innovation is not a state but a process, comparable to the chemical process of crystal formation and growth.


Manimala, M.J. (2006). Evolution of the Bangalore ICT Cluster: The "Crystal Growth" Model. Industry and Higher Education, 20(4), 249-255. Retrieved September 23, 2019 from .

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