Computer-Based Graphical Displays for Enhancing Mental Animation and Improving Reasoning in Novice Learning of Probability
Journal of Computing in Higher Education Volume 18, Number 1, ISSN 1042-1726
Our research suggests static and animated graphics can lead to more animated thinking and more correct problem solving in computer-based probability learning. Pilot software modules were developed for graduate online statistics courses and representation research. A study with novice graduate student statisticians compared problem solving in five graphic versions: text, static visual, static motion cues, computer animated, and interactive computer animated. Groups were also compared on transfer problems with static graphics without motion cues. Level of animation in thinking was assessed as number of images and movement symbols in notes. All groups provided with graphic maps had more correct solutions than the text group. Displaying static motion cues, computer animated, and interactive animated maps resulted in more correct solutions and animation in notes than just text or static visuals without motion cues. Graphic maps with static motion cues or computer animated overlay resulted in equally more correct solutions and greater animation in notes. Graphic maps with static motion cues better prepared learners for solving less animated and more difficult problems. Imagery and movement in notes were significant predictors of correct training and transfer problem solutions.
Kaplan, D.E. & Wu, E.C.l. (2006). Computer-Based Graphical Displays for Enhancing Mental Animation and Improving Reasoning in Novice Learning of Probability. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 18(1), 55-79.