You are here:

How to Represent Adaptation in e-Learning with IMS Learning Design

, ,

Interactive Learning Environments Volume 15, Number 2, ISSN 1049-4820


Adaptation in e-learning has been an important research topic for the last few decades in computer-based education. In adaptivity the behaviour of the user triggers some actions in the system that guides the learning process. In adaptability, the user makes changes and takes decisions. Progressing from computer-based training and adaptive hypermedia systems, adaptation in e-learning today involves new technologies and ways of expression. In this context, IMS Learning Design (IMS LD) is an e-learning specification that allows for modelling learning experiences including adaptation and personalized learning. IMS LD fulfills many of the requirements for realizing adaptive and adaptable units of learning/courses. In this paper we review several approaches to adaptation and e-learning. In addition, we give an overview of adaptation and its main characteristics. In the second section we identify how adaptive features and elements can be modelled in IMS LD, detailing a number of example units of learning which illustrate different forms of adaptation. In the final section we discuss issues in attaining the right balance between effort invested and results acquired while modelling IMS LD adaptive Units of Learning.


Burgos, D., Tattersall, C. & Koper, R. (2007). How to Represent Adaptation in e-Learning with IMS Learning Design. Interactive Learning Environments, 15(2), 161-170. Retrieved October 14, 2019 from .

This record was imported from ERIC on April 18, 2013. [Original Record]

ERIC is sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education.

Copyright for this record is held by the content creator. For more details see ERIC's copyright policy.


Cited By

View References & Citations Map

These links are based on references which have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake, please contact