You are here:

Perspectives on Blended Learning in Higher Education Article

, University of Calgary, Canada

International Journal on E-Learning Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 1537-2456 Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Waynesville, NC USA


This article explores the benefits and challenges of blended learning in higher education from the perspective of students, faculty, and administration that have had direct experience with this form of course delivery. Students indicate that a blended learning model provides them with greater time flexibility and improved learning outcomes but that initially they encounter issues around time management, taking greater responsibility for their own learning, and using sophisticated technologies. Faculty suggest that blended courses create enhanced opportunities for teacher-student interaction, increased student engagement in learning, added flexibility in the teaching and learning environment, and opportunities for continuous improvement. They state that the challenges faced in developing such a course include a lack of time, support and resources for course redesign, acquiring new teaching and technology skills, plus the risks associated with delivering a course in a blended format. From an administrative perspective, blended learning presents the opportunity to enhance an institution's reputation, expand access to an institution's educational offerings, and reduce operating costs. The challenges consist of aligning blended learning with institutional goals and priorities, resistance to organizational change and lack of organizational structure and experience with collaboration and partnerships.


Vaughan, N. (2007). Perspectives on Blended Learning in Higher Education. International Journal on E-Learning, 6(1), 81-94. Waynesville, NC USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved July 20, 2018 from .


View References & Citations Map


  1. Arabasz, P., Boggs, R., & Baker, M. B. (2003, April). Highlights of e-learning support practices. Educause Center for Applied Research Bulletin, 2003(9), 1-11.
  2. Aycock, A., Garnham, C., & Kaleta, R. (2002). Lessons learned from the hybrid course project. Teaching with Technology Today, 8(6). Retrieved October 3, 2006, from
  3. Barone, C. (2001). Conditions for transformation: Infrastructure is not the issue. Educause Review, 36(3), 41-47.
  4. Bates, T., & Poole, G. (2003). Effective teaching with technology in higher education: Foundations for success. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  5. Bleed, R. (2001). A hybrid campus for a new millennium. Educause Review, 36(1), 16-24.
  6. Brown, D. (2001). Hybrid courses are best. Syllabus, 15(22). Retrieved October 3, 2006, from
  7. Carr, S. (2001). Is anyone making money on distance education? Chronicle of Higher Education, A41. Retrieved October 3, 2006, from
  8. Carr, S. (2000). As distance education comes of age, the challenge is keeping the students. Chronicle of Higher Education, A39. Retrieved October 3, 2006, from
  9. Cho, K., & Berge, Z. L. (2002). Overcoming barriers to distance training and education. USDLA
  10. Clark, D. (2003). Blend it like Beckham. Epic Group PLC. Retrieved October 3, 2006, from
  11. Dodge, B. (2001). FOCUS: Five rules for writing a great webquest. Learning & Leading with Technology, 28(8), 6-9.
  12. Dziuban, C.D., Hartman, J., Juge, F., Moskal, P.D., & Sorg, S. (2005). Blended learning:
  13. Dziuban, C., Hartman, J., & Moskal, P. (2004, March). Blended learning. Educause Center for Applied Research Bulletin, 2004(7), 1-12.
  14. Dziuban, C., Hartman, J., Moskal, P., Sorg, S., & Truman, B. (2004). Three ALN modalities: An
  15. Dziuban, C., & Moskal, P. (2001). Distributed learning impact evaluation. Research Initiative for Teaching Effectiveness. Retrieved October 3, 2006, from
  16. Garnham, C., & Kaleta, R. (2002). Introduction to hybrid courses. Teaching with Technology Today, 8(6). Retrieved October 3, 2006, from
  17. Garrison, D.R. (2004). Transformative leadership and e-learning. In K. Matheos & T.Carey, Advances and Challenges in eLearning at Canadian Research Universities (pp. 46-54). The University of Manitoba: Centre for Higher Education Research and Development. Garrison, D.R., & Anderson, T.
  18. Garrison, D.R., & Kanuka, H. (2004). Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 7(2), 95-105. Vaughan
  19. Garrison, D. R., Kanuka, H., & Hawes, D. (2002). Blended learning: Archetypes for more effective undergraduate learning experiences. University of Calgary: Learning Commons.
  20. Hartman, J.L., & Truman-Davis, B. (2001). Institutionalizing support for faculty use of technology at the University of Central Florida. In R.M. Epper & A.W. Bates, Teaching faculty how to use technology: Best practices from leading institutions (pp. 39-58). Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press.
  21. Heterick, B., & Twigg, C. (2002). Explaining college costs - It's not how fast you run. The
  22. King, K.P. (2001). Educators revitalize the classroom "bulletin board": A case study of the
  23. Levine, S.L., & Wake, W.K. (2000). Hybrid teaching: Design studios in virtual space. Education of Artists. Retrieved October 3, 2006, from
  24. National Clearinghouse for Commuter Programs (1999). The role of commuter programs and
  25. Sands, P. (2002). Inside outside, upside downside: Strategies for connecting online and faceto-face instruction in hybrid courses. Teaching with Technology Today, 8(6). Retrieved October 3, 2006, from
  26. Spika, P. (2002). Approximately "real world" learning with the hybrid model. Teaching with
  27. Voos, R. (2003). Blended learning–What is it and where might it take us? Sloan-C View, 2(1). Retrieved October 3, 2006, from
  28. Williams, C. (2002). Learning on-line: A review of recent literature in a rapidly expanding field. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 26(3), 263-272.
  29. Williams, J. (2003). Blending into the background. E-Learning Age Magazine, 1.
  30. Young, J. R. (2002). Hybrid teaching seeks to end the divide between traditional and online instruction. Chronicle of Higher Education, 48(28), A33. Retrieved October 3, 2006, from

These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact