You are here:

Design characteristics of virtual learning environments: state of research


Computers & Education Volume 57, Number 4, ISSN 0360-1315 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


Virtual learning environments constitute current information systems’ category for electronically supported training and development in (higher) education(al) and vocational training settings. Frequently expected advantages of using virtual learning environments refer, for instance, to the efficiency, individuality, ubiquity, timeliness and learning task orientation. However, a crucial precondition of realising such advantages is an appropriate system design. Hence, the question “Which specific design characteristics actually characterise successful virtual learning environments?” is of specific interest for training and development practice. This paper therefore discusses virtual learning environments’ design characteristics by conducting an in-depth literature review. Based on this, a comprehensive set of diverse design characteristics of virtual learning environments as well as particular information associated with them are elicited, presented and discussed. Beyond this, particular implications for research and practice are derived. This may contribute to a successful development, implementation and (continuous) improvement/evaluation of virtual learning environments.


Mueller, D. & Strohmeier, S. (2011). Design characteristics of virtual learning environments: state of research. Computers & Education, 57(4), 2505-2516. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved October 19, 2019 from .

This record was imported from Computers & Education on January 29, 2019. Computers & Education is a publication of Elsevier.

Full text is availabe on Science Direct:


Cited By

View References & Citations Map

These links are based on references which have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake, please contact