You are here:

How digital scaffolds in games direct problem-solving behaviors

, ,

Computers & Education Volume 57, Number 3, ISSN 0360-1315 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


Digital systems offer computational power and instant feedback. Game designers are using these features to create scaffolding tools to reduce player frustration. However, researchers are finding some unexpected effects of scaffolding on strategy development and problem-solving behaviors. We used a digital Sudoku game named “Professor Sudoku” to classify built-in critical features, frustration control and demonstration scaffolds, and to investigate their effects on player/learner behaviors. Our data indicate that scaffolding support increased the level at which puzzles could be solved, and decreased frustration resulting from excessive numbers of retries. However, it also reduced the number of unassisted placements (i.e., independently filled cells), and increased reliance on scaffolding tools, both of which are considered disadvantageous for learning. Among the three scaffold types, frustration control reduced the potential for players to feel stuck at certain levels, but also reduced the frequency of use of critical feature-making tools, which are thought to have greater heuristic value. We conclude that the simultaneous provision of critical feature and frustration control scaffolds may increase player reliance on available support, thereby reducing learning opportunities. Providing players with critical features and demonstration scaffolds at the same time increases reliance on available support for some players, but for most it encourages the development of solving strategies.


Sun, C.T., Wang, D.Y. & Chan, H.L. (2011). How digital scaffolds in games direct problem-solving behaviors. Computers & Education, 57(3), 2118-2125. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved April 20, 2019 from .

This record was imported from Computers & Education on February 1, 2019. Computers & Education is a publication of Elsevier.

Full text is availabe on Science Direct:


View References & Citations Map

Cited By

  1. Factors that Influence Scaffolded Online Collaborative After-Class Tutoring

    Yu-Hsuan Chen, Department of Visual Communication Design, Taipei University of Marine Technology, Taiwan; Chang-Hwa Wang, Department of Graphic Arts and Communications, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan

    E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2017 (Oct 17, 2017) pp. 269–277

  2. Teacher Designed Games: Leading Innovation in Classrooms

    Yang Liu, University of Calgary, Canada

    Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2014 (Mar 17, 2014) pp. 665–669

These links are based on references which have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake, please contact