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The 8 Pillars of Metacognition

, , N.C.S.R. ‘Demokritos’

iJET Volume 15, Number 21, ISSN 1863-0383 Publisher: International Journal of Emerging Technology in Learning, Kassel, Germany


Metacognition constitutes the dominant competence of the 21st century. De-spite the indisputable scientific interest, there are various unanswered questions concerning the identity of metacognition, its fundamental mechanisms and its limits. In this study, a holistic and multi-disciplinary approach is attempted by collecting and utilizing data from sciences such as cognitive psychology and neuropsychology, and philosophy. The research has led us to the 8 pillars that underpin metacognition. These pillars follow the model of the hierarchical or-ganization of knowledge. According to this approach, cognitive and metacogni-tive skills evolve progressively depending on the effort an individual exerts. It is worth noting that some cognitive functions such as attention and working memory seem to surpass the rest, since they operate simultaneously as cognitive and metacognitive abilities, affecting the functioning of the pillars, other cogni-tive functions, and in particular the higher mental abilities. Among the conclu-sions of greatest importance we can cite that the metacognition pillars are, like reality itself, a field of multiple readings. They contribute to the proper func-tioning of the cognitive and psychophysiological mechanism, the melioration of intelligence in all fields (physical, intellectual, emotional and spiritual), the emergence of consciousness and self-knowledge. In practical terms, the pillars of metacognition are the most valuable tool of self-learning, self-development, self-treatment and self-knowledge. Metacognition, also, constitutes a key factor in effective leadership, in medical and health professions. Lastly, the pillars of metacognition should be the cornerstone of general, special, vocational and ac-ademic education so as to promote holistic learning.


Drigas, A. & Mitsea, E. (2020). The 8 Pillars of Metacognition. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 15(21), 162-178. Kassel, Germany: International Journal of Emerging Technology in Learning. Retrieved November 25, 2020 from .