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Enablers and barriers to the use of ICT in primary schools in Turkey: A comparative study of 2005–2011

, , , Department of Computer Education & Instructional Technology, Turkey

Computers & Education Volume 68, Number 1, ISSN 0360-1315 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


The purpose of this study was to reveal barriers encountered by Turkish primary school teachers in the integration of ICT, to propose potential enablers to overcome those barriers, and to compare the current status of ICT integration (in 2011) with the status of ICT integration in 2005. Part of the data for this comparison was gathered in 2005 as part of a doctoral study by Goktas (2006). A survey design was used to investigate the barriers and enablers. Data were collected from 1373 teachers from 52 schools in 39 provinces. The results indicate that ‘lack of hardware’, ‘lack of appropriate software materials’, ‘limitations of hardware’, ‘lack of in-service training’, and ‘lack of technical support’ were the most important barriers. The highest ranked enablers were ‘allocation of more budget’, ‘allocation of specific units for peer support’, ‘allocation of support offices and personnel for teachers’, and ‘offering higher quality pre-service training for ICT’. Other leading enablers were ‘supporting teachers to enable effective ICT use’, ‘having technology plans’, ‘offering higher quality and more quantity of in-service training’, and ‘designing appropriate course content/instructional programs’. Analysis of an independent t-test revealed that most barriers showed significant differences and most enablers showed moderate or low differences between teachers' perceptions of their situation in 2005 and in 2011.


Goktas, Y., Gedik, N. & Baydas, O. (2013). Enablers and barriers to the use of ICT in primary schools in Turkey: A comparative study of 2005–2011. Computers & Education, 68(1), 211-222. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved November 17, 2019 from .

This record was imported from Computers & Education on January 31, 2019. Computers & Education is a publication of Elsevier.

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