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Educating all for positive peace: Education for positive peace or oppression?

International Journal of Educational Development Volume 15, Number 3 ISSN 0738-0593 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


The absence of indirect or structural violence is termed positive peace. In this paper the author attempts to apply the concept of positive peace to the concept of education for all, the way this concept was defined at the World Conference on Education for All (WCEFA) in Jomtien, Thailand, in March, 1990. The discussion focuses on three points raised at the Jomtien conference by countries from the South: the effects of the structural adjustment policies (SAP) on the education sector; the effects on higher education of a concentration of resources on basic education and the effects of EFA on the possibilities of strengthening indigenous culture. The discussion shows, through new research results and concrete examples, that the effects of SAPs like the reintroduction of school-fees in a poor country like Tanzania lead to greater inequalities and greater structural violence against the poor, especially the girls from the poorer homes. It further shows that there is a process going on in African countries of undermining local curriculum development and the local textbook industry thereby threatening the indigenous culture. An example from Zimbabwe of sustainable education which does not rely on external sources is given.


Brock-Utne, B. Educating all for positive peace: Education for positive peace or oppression?. International Journal of Educational Development, 15(3), 321-331. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved July 21, 2019 from .

This record was imported from International Journal of Educational Development on March 1, 2019. International Journal of Educational Development is a publication of Elsevier.

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