You are here:

Keystroke-Level Analysis to Estimate Time to Process Pages in Online Learning Environments


Interactive Learning Environments Volume 26, Number 4, ISSN 1049-4820


It is challenging for students to plan their work sessions in online environments, as it is very difficult to make estimates on how much material there is to cover. In order to simplify this estimation, we have extended the Keystroke-level analysis model with individual reading speed of text, figures, and questions. This was used to estimate how long students might take to work through pages in an online learning environment. The estimates from the model were compared to data collected from 902 volunteer students. Despite the huge differences in reported reading speeds between students, the presented model performs reasonably well and could be used to give learners feedback on how long it takes to work through pages in online learning environments. This feedback could be used to support students' motivation and effort regulation as they work through online course components. Although the model performs reasonably well, we propose giving feedback in the form of intervals to indicate the uncertainty of the estimates.


Bälter, O. & Zimmaro, D. (2018). Keystroke-Level Analysis to Estimate Time to Process Pages in Online Learning Environments. Interactive Learning Environments, 26(4), 476-485. Retrieved November 13, 2019 from .

This record was imported from ERIC on January 9, 2019. [Original Record]

ERIC is sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education.

Copyright for this record is held by the content creator. For more details see ERIC's copyright policy.