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Augmented Reality Learning Experiences: Survey of Prototype Design and Evaluation

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IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies Volume 7, Number 1, ISSN 1939-1382


Augmented reality (AR) technology is mature for creating learning experiences for K-12 (pre-school, grade school, and high school) educational settings. We reviewed the applications intended to complement traditional curriculum materials for K-12. We found 87 research articles on augmented reality learning experiences (ARLEs) in the IEEE Xplore Digital Library and other learning technology publications. Forty-three of these articles conducted user studies, and seven allowed the computation of an effect size to the performance of students in a test. In our meta-analysis, research show that ARLEs achieved a widely variable effect on student performance from a small negative effect to a large effect, with a mean effect size of 0.56 or moderate effect. To complement this finding, we performed a qualitative analysis on the design aspects for ARLEs: display hardware, software libraries, content authoring solutions, and evaluation techniques. We explain that AR incur three inherent advantages: real world annotation, contextual visualization, and vision-haptic visualization. We illustrate these advantages through the exemplifying prototypes, and ground these advantages to multimedia learning theory, experiential learning theory, and animate vision theory. Insights from this review are aimed to inform the design of future ARLEs.


Santos, M.E.C., Chen, A., Taketomi, T., Yamamoto, G., Miyazaki, J. & Kato, H. (2014). Augmented Reality Learning Experiences: Survey of Prototype Design and Evaluation. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 7(1), 38-56. Retrieved December 7, 2019 from .

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