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The Impact of Learner Characteristics on Learning Performance in Hybrid Courses among Japanese Students

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Electronic Journal of e-Learning Volume 5, Number 3 ISSN 1479-4403


To improve the management of hybrid courses, the relationship between learner characteristics and learning performance was analyzed in two regular university courses. Undergraduate and graduate students participated in two 15-week hybrid courses which consisted of face-to-face lectures (Information Industrial issues), and the corresponding modules with online test. Subjects included 36 freshmen and 48 graduate students. Learner characteristics, consisting of motivation, personality, thinking styles and learners' impression of their e-Learning experiences were measured at the beginning and end of the term. Additional data was collected from the number of days attended, the number of modules completed, test scores and final grades for the course. Final assessment grades for the class were also analyzed. There was no significant difference in learner characteristics between bachelors and masters students who completed the course. There was no significant difference in learner characteristics between bachelor and master students, but there were some differences in conscientiousness scores between masters and bachelor students and between those who received a final grade of A and B. Scores on "learning strategy" as a factor to indicate learning experience were in favour of master students. Master students' evaluation of their e-Learning experience increased significantly throughout the course. Conscientiousness (one of the five factors in the personality construct) correlated positively with the number of e-Learning modules completed by master students (r = 0.35). They seem to understand better the benefits of e-Learning experience and being the more motivated students, they applied what they have learned from previous e-Learning experiences more effectively. Students with high grades evaluated their e-Learning experience positively and had significantly higher conscientiousness scores than master students who received lower grades (p<0.05). For bachelor students, the number of modules completed correlates with both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Other learner characteristics did not affect learning performance. The reason may be that bachelor students have yet to understand well the benefits of e-Learning and still lack the learning strategies needed for university coursework. The causal analysis was conducted using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique, and the result indicated that learner characteristics had an effect on learning experience and learning performance. These results suggest that understanding the benefits of e-Learning and learner characteristics, as well as knowing how to learn with e-Learning content could provide important key for promoting student success in online learning.


Nakayama, M., Yamamoto, H. & Santiago, R. The Impact of Learner Characteristics on Learning Performance in Hybrid Courses among Japanese Students. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 5(3), 195-206. Retrieved April 22, 2019 from .

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