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Social presence in the 21st century: An adjustment to the Community of Inquiry framework


British Journal of Educational Technology Volume 47, Number 6, ISSN 0007-1013 e-ISSN 0007-1013 Publisher: Wiley


The Community of Inquiry framework, originally proposed by Garrison, Anderson and Archer, identifies teaching, social and cognitive presences as central to a successful online educational experience. This paper presents the findings of a study conducted in Uruguay between 2007 and 2010. The research aimed to establish the role of cognitive, social and teaching presences in the professional development of 40 English language teachers on continuous professional development programmes delivered in blended learning settings. The findings suggest that teaching presence and cognitive presence have themselves “become social.” The research points to social presence as a major lever for engagement, sense-making and peer support. Based on the patterns identified in the study, this paper puts forward an adjustment to the Community of Inquiry framework, which shows social presence as more prominent within the teaching and cognitive constructs than the original version of the framework suggests.


Armellini, A. & De Stefani, M. (2016). Social presence in the 21st century: An adjustment to the Community of Inquiry framework. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(6), 1202-1216. Wiley. Retrieved October 19, 2019 from .

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