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Design Principles for Augmented Reality Learning

TLRPTIL Volume 58, Number 1, ISSN 8756-3894


Augmented reality is an emerging technology that utilizes mobile, context-aware devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets) that enable participants to interact with digital information embedded within the physical environment. This overview of design principles focuses on specific strategies that instructional designers can use to develop AR learning experiences. A review of the literature reveals the following three design principles as instructive: 1. Enable and then challenge (challenge): 2. Drive by gamified story (fantasy); and 3. See the unseen (curiosity). These design principles can also be viewed as an attempt to either leverage the unique affor- dances of AR or minimize the limitations of the medium as reported in the literature (Dunleavy & Dede, 2014). As the field matures and more research teams explore the potential of AR to enhance teaching and learning, it will be critical to determine the design techniques that optimize the unique affordances of AR, minimize the limitations of the medium, and ultimately enhance learning across the curriculum.


Dunleavy, M. (2014). Design Principles for Augmented Reality Learning. TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 58(1), 28-34. Retrieved April 24, 2019 from .

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