Australasian Journal of Educational Technology Volume 30, Number 4, ISSN 0814-673X Publisher: Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education
Blended learning has been growing in popularity as it has proved to be an effective approach for accommodating an increasingly diverse student population whilst adding value to the learning environment through incorporation of online teaching resources. Despite this growing interest, there is ongoing debate about the definition of the concept of blended learning. As a result, teachers in higher education have developed different understandings of the term and different design approaches have evolved. Selecting the most appropriate design approach for a blended course is a major challenge for many teachers in higher education institutions who are new to the idea of blended learning. This paper aims to provide guidance to help teachers of traditional face-to-face courses in selecting the most appropriate approach to use when designing their blended courses. Firstly, it discusses the different definitions of the term blended learning and how they have resulted in a number of design approaches. It then classifies these approaches into: low-impact, medium-impact and high-impact blends according to the potential changes to the existing teaching program and student learning experience. Finally, it describes the benefits and the challenges of applying each approach and provides recommendations about when and how each approach should be used.
Alammary, A., Sheard, J. & Carbone, A. (2014). Blended learning in higher education: Three different design approaches. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 30(4),. Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education. Retrieved January 17, 2019 from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/148495/.
- Amiel, T., & Orey, M. (2006). Do you have the time? Investigating online classroom workload. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 35, 31-43.
- Aycock, A., Garnham, C., & Kaleta, R. (2002). Lessons learned from the hybrid course project. Teaching with Technology Today, 8(6), 9-21. Retrieved from http://www.uwsa.edu/ttt/articles/garnham2.htm
- Biggs, J. (1996). Enhancing teaching through constructive alignment. Higher Education, 32, 347-364.
- Bliuc, A.-M., Goodyear, P., & Ellis, R.A. (2007). Research focus and methodological choices in studies into students' experiences of blended learning in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 10, 231-244. Doi:10.1016/J.iheduc.2007.08.001
- Boyle, T., Bradley, C., Chalk, P., Jones, R., & Pickard, P. (2003). Using blended learning to improve student success rates in learning to program. Journal of Educational Media, 28, 165-178.
- Carman, J.M. (2002). Blended learning design: Five key ingredients. Retrieved from http://www.agilantlearning.com/pdf/Blended%20Learning%20Design.pdf Cennamo, K.S., Ross, J.D., & Ertmer, P.A. (2009). Technology integration for meaningful classroom use: A standards-based approach.
- Cook, K., Owston, R., & Garrison, D.R. (2004). Blended learning practices at COHERE universities. Retrieved from http://www.yorku.ca/irlt/reports/BLtechnicalreportfinal.pdf Deperlioglu, O., & Kose, U. (2013). The effectiveness and experiences of blended learning approaches to computer programming education. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 21, 328-342.
- Duhaney, D.C. (2004). Blended learning in education,training, and development. Performance Improvement, 43(8), 35-38. Doi:10.1002/pfi.4140430810
- Dziuban, C., Moskal, P., & Hartman, J. (2005). Higher education, blended learning, and the generations: Knowledge is power: No more. Elements of quality online education: Engaging communities. Needham, MA: Sloan Center for Online Education. Retrieved from http://inspvirtual.mx/espm30/docentes/formdocente/jd2013/Julio_tlalpan/material_apoyo/blendedlearNing.pdf
- Ellis, R.A., Steed, A.F., & Applebee, A.C. (2006). Teacher conceptions of blended learning, blended teaching and associations with approaches to design. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 22, 312-335 http://ascilite.org.au/ajet/submission/index.php/AJET/index Ertmer, P.A, & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A.T. (2010). Teacher technology change: How knowledge, confidence, beliefs, and culture intersect. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42, 255284.
- Garrison, D.R., & Vaughan, N.D. (2011). Blended learning in higher education: Framework, principles, and guidelines. San Francisco: John Wiley& Sons.
- Graham, C.R. (2009). Blended learning models. Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, 375-382. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Graham, C.R. (2012a). Blended learning systems: Definition, current trends, and future directions. In C.J. Bonk& C.R. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives, local designs (pp. 3-21). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley& Sons.
- Harriman, G. (2004). Blended learning. Retrieved from http://www.grayharriman.com/blended_learning.htm #1
- Hofmann, J. (2006). Why blended learning hasn't (yet) fulfilled its promises. In C.J. Bonk& C.R. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives, local designs (pp. 27-40). San
- Huang, R., & Zhou, Y. (2005). Designing blended learning focused on knowledge category and learning activities. In C.J. Bonk& C.R. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives, local designs (pp. 296-310). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer Publishing.
- Kaleta, R., Skibba, K., & Joosten, T. (2007). Discovering, designing, and delivering hybrid courses. In A.G. Picciano& C.D. Dziuban (Eds.), Blended learning research perspectives (pp. 111-143). Needham,
- Littlejohn, A., & Pegler, C. (2007). Preparing for blended e-learning. Abingdon, Oxon: Taylor& Francis.
- McCarthy, J. (2010). Blended learning environments: Using social networking sites to enhance the first year experience. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26, 729-740.
- Mortera-Gutiérrez, F. (2006). Faculty best practices using blended learning in e-learning and face-to-face instruction. International Journal on E-learning, 5, 313-337. Http://www.editlib.org/j/IJEL/ Moskal, P., Dziuban, C., & Hartman, J. (2013). Blended learning: A dangerous idea? The Internet and Higher Education, 18, 15-23. Doi:10.1016/J.iheduc.2012.12.001Newcombe,E.(2011,
- Ocak, M.A. (2011). Why are faculty members not teaching blended courses? Insights from faculty members. Computers& Education, 56, 689-699.
- Oliver, M., & Trigwell, K. (2005). Can ‘blended learning’ be redeemed? E-learning and Digital Media, 2, 17-26.
- Osguthorpe, R.T., & Graham, C.R. (2003). Blended learning environments: Definitions and directions. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 4, 227-233.
- Partridge, H., Ponting, D., & McCay, M. (2011). Good practice report: Blended learning. Sydney, NSW: the Australian Learning and Teaching Council.Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/47566/1/47566.pdf Picciano, A.G. (2009). Blending With Purpose: The Multimodal Model. Journal of the Research Center for Educational Technology (RCET), 5(1), 4-14.
- Ragan, L. (2007). Teaching blended learning courses. Retrieved from http://cnx.org/content/m15048/latest/?collection=col10453/latest Reeves, T.C. (2003). Storm clouds on the digital education horizon. Journal of Computing, 15(1), 3-26.
- Sharma, P. (2010). Blended learning. ELT Journal, 64, 456-458. Http://eltj.oxfordjournals.org/ Sharpe, R., Benfield, G., Roberts, G., & Francis, R. (2006). The undergraduate experience of blended elearning: A review of UK literature and practice. Retrieved from http://business.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/documents/research/literature_reviews/blended_elearning_full
- Stacey, E., & Gerbic, P. (2008). Success factors for blended learning. In Hello! Where are you in the landscape of educational technology? Proceedings ascilite Melbourne 2008. Http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/melbourne08/procs/stacey.pdf
- Torrisi-Steele, G., & Davis, G. (2000). “A website for my subject”: The experiences of some academics’ engagement with educational designers in a team based approach to developing online learning materials. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 16, 283-301.
- Vaughan, N. (2007). Perspectives on blended learning in higher education. International Journal on ELearning (IJEL), 6, 81. Http://www.editlib.org/j/IJEL/ Verkroost, M.J., Meijerink, L., Lintsen, H., & Veen, W. (2008). Finding a balance in dimensions of blended learning. International Journal on E-Learning (IJEL), 7, 499522. Http://www.editlib.org/j/IJEL/
- Walters, B. (2008, August 12). Blended learning-classroom with on-line. The CALSCA Online Magazine. Retrieved from http://calsca.com/Writings/walters_blended_learning.htm
- Westbrook, K. (2008). The beginning of the end for blended learning? IATEFL CALL Review 2008. Retrieved from http://www.psa.eu.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/DeathOfBlendedLearning.pdf Wozney, L., Venkatesh, V., & Abrami, Pp. (2006). Implementing computer technologies: Teachers' perceptions and practices. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14, 173-207.
These references have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake in the references above, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
From “it wasn’t that helpful” to “it was really good”: Proportion of Online to Face-to-Face Components and Student Experiences with Blended Learning
Luis Francisco Vargas-Madriz & Norma Nocente, University of Alberta, Canada
E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2018 (Oct 15, 2018) pp. 989–994
Luis Francisco Vargas-Madriz & Norma Nocente, University of Alberta, Canada
EdMedia + Innovate Learning 2018 (Jun 25, 2018) pp. 1929–1934
Using Blended Teaching to Teach Blended Learning: Lessons Learned from Pre-Service Teachers in an Instructional Methods Course
Kristen Shand, California State University Fullerton, United States; Susan Glassett Farrelly, Humboldt State University, United States
Journal of Online Learning Research Vol. 3, No. 1 (May 2017) pp. 5–30
J. Michael Blocher, Tina Chaseley & Laura Blocher, Northern Arizona University, United States
Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2016 (Mar 21, 2016) pp. 1849–1855
Kristen Shand, Susan Glassett Farrelly & Victoria Costa, California State University Fullerton, United States
Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2016 (Mar 21, 2016) pp. 378–389
James Lipuma & Bruce Bukiet, New Jersey Institute of Technology, United States
E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2015 (Oct 19, 2015) pp. 619–624
These links are based on references which have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake, please contact email@example.com.