The research reported in this paper was designed to investigate the hypothesis that computer programming may support the teaching and learning of problem solving, but that to do so, problem solving must be explicitly taught. Three studies involved students in several grades: 4th, 6th, 8th, 11th, and 12th. Findings collectively show that five particular problem solving strategies can be developed in students explicitly taught those strategies and given practice applying them to solve Logo programming problems. The research further demonstrates the superiority of such intervention over Logo programming practice alone, explicit strategy training with concrete manipulative practice, and the instruction in content areas that is traditionally prescribed for the teaching and learning of problem solving. Knowledge-based instruction linking declarative to procedural knowledge of problem solving strategies is recommended as a means to this end. The results also suggest, however, that computing environments may be uniquely conducive to the development of problem solving skills as they help learners bridge the gap between concrete and formal understanding. (Contains 45 references.) (DB)
Swan, K. & Black, J.B. Logo Programming, Problem Solving, and Knowledge-Based Instruction.