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The LINDSAY Virtual Human Project: An immersive Approach to Anatomy and Physiology

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Anatomical Sciences Education Volume 6, Number 1, ISSN 1935-9772


The increasing number of digital anatomy teaching software packages challenges anatomy educators on how to best integrate these tools for teaching and learning. Realistically, there exists a complex interplay of design, implementation, politics, and learning needs in the development and integration of software for education, each of which may be further amplified by the somewhat siloed roles of programmers, faculty, and students. LINDSAY Presenter is newly designed software that permits faculty and students to model and manipulate three-dimensional anatomy presentations and images, while including embedded quizzes, links, and text-based content. A validated tool measuring impact across pedagogy, resources, interactivity, freedom, granularity, and factors outside the immediate learning event was used in conjunction with observation, field notes, and focus groups to critically examine the impact of attitudes and perceptions of all stakeholders in the early implementation of LINDSAY Presenter before and after a three-week trial period with the software. Results demonstrate that external, personal media usage, along with students' awareness of the need to apply anatomy to clinical professional situations drove expectations of LINDSAY Presenter. A focus on the software over learning, which can be expected during initial orientation, surprisingly remained after three weeks of use. The time-intensive investment required to create learning content is a detractor from user-generated content and may reflect the consumption nature of other forms of digital learning. Early excitement over new technologies needs to be tempered with clear understanding of what learning is afforded, and how these constructively support future application and integration into professional practice. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)


Tworek, J.K., Jamniczky, H.A., Jacob, C., Hallgrímsson, B. & Wright, B. (2013). The LINDSAY Virtual Human Project: An immersive Approach to Anatomy and Physiology. Anatomical Sciences Education, 6(1), 19-28. Retrieved March 3, 2021 from .

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