The effect of semantic maps and different adjunct processing strategies on student achievement of different types of learning outcomes
Kelly Ann Chiemi Yamashiro, The Pennsylvania State University, United States
The Pennsylvania State University . Awarded
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different adjunct processing strategies in complementing semantic maps embedded within instructional text on student achievement of different types of learning outcomes. The 288 participants in this study were undergraduate students in English as a foreign language in Taiwan.
Subjects were divided into two groups—Group A and Group B. Subjects in each group were randomly assigned to one of four treatment subgroups—Treatment 1 received computer-based instructional text with embedded semantic maps; Treatment 2 received computer-based instructional text with embedded semantic maps and adjunct post-questions; Treatment 3 received computer-based instructional text with embedded semantic maps, adjunct post-questions, and metacognitive process prompts; and Treatment 4 received computer-based instructional text with embedded semantic maps, adjunct post-questions, metacognitive process prompts, and cognitive feedback. Group A was not given strategy training on semantic maps and metacognitive process prompts, while Group B received one hour of strategy training on semantic maps and one hour on metacognitive process prompts. Upon completion of the instruction, all subjects were given three multiple-choice tests to measure immediate achievement on three different learning outcomes. One week later, all subjects were given the same three multiple-choice tests to measure delayed achievement.
Multivariate analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in both immediate testing and in delayed testing on the criterion tests' scores among the varied semantic map treatments regardless of whether strategy training was or was not provided. However, a doubly repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance revealed that the main effect within-factor variable of time was significant. Further analysis revealed that several test score difference values were not significantly different from zero, indicating that several test scores achieved in immediate testing were not significantly different from those achieved in delayed testing.
It was also concluded that the combination of empirically and theoretically based strategies do not necessarily enhance learning. The effectiveness of such strategies may be realized when used alone. However, when used in combination, the theoretical functions might interact with one another to the point of creating either an innocuous or an adverse effect on achievement.
Yamashiro, K.A.C. The effect of semantic maps and different adjunct processing strategies on student achievement of different types of learning outcomes. Ph.D. thesis, The Pennsylvania State University.
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