The impact of engagement activity and manipulatives presentation on intermediate mathematics achievement, time-on-task, learning efficiency, and attitude
Nancy Earnheart Nute, The University of Memphis, United States
The University of Memphis . Awarded
The primary purpose of this study was to determine if engagement activities and manipulatives-type presentations had any bearing on intermediate students' mathematics achievement, time-on-task, efficiency of learning, and attitude. Participants were 241 intermediate students attending a parochial school of a mid-southern urban area of Memphis in Spring, 1996. Participants were randomly assigned to treatments--six groups receiving various combinations of manipulatives activity/presentation instructional strategies and one control group having no manipulatives exposure. Data included (a) achievement unit posttest testing recall, recognition, application, and total achievement of the patterns content; (b) time-on-task scores; and (c) a student attitude questionnaire.
Results indicate a significant presentation main effect on time-on-task, in which the computer only presentation took more unit lesson time than the concrete only presentation; and a significant grade level-presentation interaction in which time-on-task was equal for both fourth graders and fifth graders. A grade level main effect for efficiency did result; sixth graders had higher efficiency than fourth or fifth graders. There were no treatment interactions or main effects for mathematics achievement. Higher-level recognition and application achievement performances of all manipulatives exposure groups were significantly higher than achievement performance of the no manipulatives (control) group. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses of the attitude questionnaire resulted in a neutral to slightly positive attitudes (towards mathematics, the instructional unit, and manipulatives) with those attitudes varying somewhat with grade level.
Treatments with manipulatives were similarly effective for intermediate mathematics achievement. Use of manipulatives instructional strategies of any kind were more effective for higher order tasks than no manipulatives exposure.
Nute, N.E. The impact of engagement activity and manipulatives presentation on intermediate mathematics achievement, time-on-task, learning efficiency, and attitude. Ph.D. thesis, The University of Memphis.
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