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An investigation of instructional design models for Web-based instruction

, The University of Toledo, United States

Doctor of Philosophy, The University of Toledo . Awarded


Statement of the problem. Research studies (Cavanaugh, 1999; Childs, 1973; Davies & Mendenhall, 1998; U.S. Government, 1967) have confirmed that distance education is as effective as traditional classroom education. Furthermore, Instructional design models were found to play an important role in developing successful instruction (Kodali, 1998; Jiang, 1998; Martindale, 1999; Nasseh, 1996; Waite, 1999). However, limited research was found concerning specific instructional design models or approaches that have been adopted for WBI.

Methodology. A survey questionnaire was designed and administered to collect the necessary data. The survey was divided into four parts corresponding to the four categories of data to be collected, including demographic data about the survey participants, the current use of instructional design approaches for WBI, the current use of strategies and technologies for WBI, and a trend analysis of the appropriate model and essential elements of instructional design for WBI.

The information was gathered from practitioners, researchers, professors, and graduate students who were actively involved in the instructional design activities of WBI. The subjects of this study included the members of Association of Educational Communications and Technology (AECT), and subscribers of Distance Education Online Symposium (DEOS) (online:

Conclusions. It was found that majority of the Web-Based Instruction was designed following existing instructional design models, although most people did not follow every element of the model(s) of their choice. The “Dick and Carey” model (1996) was found to be the most commonly used model. The most frequently followed elements included “determine delivery strategies,” “analyze learning task,” “analyze learning contexts,” “analyze learners,” and “write and produce instruction.” The least frequently followed element was “write test items.”

Email was the most utilized medium for learner interaction, whereas only a small portion of the population implemented technologies such as streaming video. About half of the population believed that the existing ID models were not appropriate for designing and developing Web-Based Instruction.


Sun, X. An investigation of instructional design models for Web-based instruction. Doctor of Philosophy thesis, The University of Toledo. Retrieved December 6, 2019 from .

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