You are here:

Needs of Elementary and Middle School Teachers Developing Online Courses for a Virtual School

, , ,

Distance Education Volume 31, Number 1, ISSN 0158-7919


Eight teams of elementary and middle school teachers developed pilot online courses for the North Carolina Virtual Public School (NCVPS) in the USA. A qualitative case study with focus groups and a follow-up survey helped to identify common needs of these non-traditional course designers during course development efforts. Findings suggest virtual schools can better support non-traditional course designers by providing leadership components such as technical expertise, regular feedback, and clear expectations, including an understanding of the target students. Findings further suggest designers need a range of bite-sized professional development on replicating model courses, using course management systems, assessing learners online, designing with copyright and safety issues in mind, integrating Web tools, and developing course documentation for deployment. The article concludes with a discussion of support structures that may aid instructors tasked with online course development.


Oliver, K., Kellogg, S., Townsend, L. & Brady, K. (2010). Needs of Elementary and Middle School Teachers Developing Online Courses for a Virtual School. Distance Education, 31(1), 55-75. Retrieved April 26, 2019 from .

This record was imported from ERIC on April 19, 2013. [Original Record]

ERIC is sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education.

Copyright for this record is held by the content creator. For more details see ERIC's copyright policy.


View References & Citations Map

Cited By

  1. Value-added in a Virtual Learning Environment: An Evaluation of a Virtual Charter School

    Martin Lueken, Gary Ritter & Dennis Beck, University of Arkansas, United States

    Journal of Online Learning Research Vol. 1, No. 3 (December 2015) pp. 305–335

  2. Enhancing Teaching Practice and Reading Fluency with a Web 2.0 Participatory Tool in Elementary Classrooms

    Xiaojun Chen & Melissa Parenti, St. John's University, United States

    E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2014 (Oct 27, 2014) pp. 377–383

  3. Virtual School Teaching: Establishing a Framework for K-12 Virtual School Professional Development Programs

    Meredith DiPietro & Mark Sivy, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, United States

    Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2011 (Mar 07, 2011) pp. 3447–3453

These links are based on references which have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake, please contact