You are here:

Interactive versus Observational Learning of Spatial Visualization of Geometric Transformat


Australian Educational Computing Volume 18, Number 1, ISSN 1443-833X e-ISSN 1443-833X


This study compared interaction with a computer vs. observation as learning situations for low and high ability student's learning of spatial visualization and geometric transformations. Thirty-two fifth grade boys took the Differential Aptitude Test, Space Relations Subset (DAT), and then participated in the experiment. Pre-test and post-test were static spatial visualization problems using polyominos. During treatment, subjects were paired, one interactively solving computer-based polyomino puzzles, the other observing a yoked monitor in a separate room. Think-aloud protocol was used throughout. Overall, no significant differences were found between the two conditions. However, high achievers on the DAT benefited significantly more from observing (p.5). Low achievers benefited marginally more from the interactive condition, showing an increased incidence of holistic mental rotation strategy following the interactive condition. (Contains 3 tables and 5 figures.)


Smith, G.G. & Middleton, J.A. (2003). Interactive versus Observational Learning of Spatial Visualization of Geometric Transformat. Australian Educational Computing, 18(1), 3-10. Retrieved March 9, 2021 from .

This record was imported from ERIC on April 19, 2013. [Original Record]

ERIC is sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education.

Copyright for this record is held by the content creator. For more details see ERIC's copyright policy.


Cited By

View References & Citations Map

These links are based on references which have been extracted automatically and may have some errors. If you see a mistake, please contact