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Integrating Concrete and Virtual Manipulatives in Early Childhood Mathematics


Young Children Volume 64, Number 3, ISSN 1538-6619


Early childhood teachers around the country and the world guide children's mathematical learning through the use of manipulatives--pattern blocks, base blocks, geoboards, Unifx cubes, Cuisenaire rods, coins, clocks, and so on. Manipulatives allow concrete, hands-on exploration and representation of mathematical concepts. In the past few years, online resources for virtual versions of these common manipulatives have become available. This paper suggests how teachers can integrate virtual manipulatives into their current developmentally appropriate teaching practice for first through third grades.


Rosen, D. & Hoffman, J. (2009). Integrating Concrete and Virtual Manipulatives in Early Childhood Mathematics. Young Children, 64(3), 26-33. Retrieved July 23, 2019 from .

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